Ancient Capital of Georgia
Mtskheta is an ancient capital of Georgia. It is situated 20 km away from Tbilisi at the junction of rivers Mtkvari and Aragvi. It was capital of Georgia from 4th century B.C. to 5th century A.D.
Archeological excavations have proven that Mtskheta was tightly populated area even in 2 millennium B.C. Mtskheta became a town quite early which was determined by the ancient trading route connecting Asia with Europe (Silk Road).
When St. Nino came to Georgia to preach Christianity, she inhabited Mtskheta. Here she did miracles and helped the royal family and turned them into Christians. After Announcing Christianity in Georgia as national religion in 337 pagan buildings and monuments were demolished and replaced by Christian churches.
Although Mtskheta is not a capital of Georgia since 5th century it still remains religious center of the country.
Old part of the town, Svetitskhoveli Cathedral and Javari Monastery are together in the list of UNESCO world heritage sites.
Below we describe all main highlights and attractions one should visit during the travel in the area.
Total Length: 35km; 45 minutes without traffic.
And here is the link for directions on Google Maps: https://goo.gl/maps/RcrNNx2QCNH2
Jvari monastery is located on top of a hill at the junction of Mtkvari and Aragvi rivers, overlooking town Mtskheta. It has a magnificent view of the area and is naturally merged in the landscape. The monastery was built in the beginning of 7th century replacing a wooden church which in 4th century replaced pagan monument. The importance of Jvari complex increased over time and attracted many pilgrims. In the late Middle Ages, the complex was fortified by a stone wall and gate, remnants of which still survive. During the Soviet period, the church was preserved as a national monument, but access was rendered difficult by tight security at a nearby military base. After the independence of Georgia, the building was restored to active religious use. Jvari was listed together with other monuments of Mtskheta in 1994 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Jvari church is an early example of a "four-apsed church with four niches" domed tetra conch. Between the four apses are three-quarter cylindrical niches which are open to the central space, and the transition from the square central bay to the base of the dome's drum is effected through three rows of squinches. The Jvari church had a great impact on the further development of Georgian architecture and served as a model for many other churches.
A masterpiece of the Early Middle Ages, Svetitskhoveli is recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It is currently the second largest church building in Georgia, after the Holy Trinity (Sameba) Cathedral in Tbilisi.
Known as the burial site of Christ's mantle, Svetitskhoveli has long been one of the principal Georgian Orthodox churches and is among the most venerated places of worship in the region. The present structure was completed in 1029 by the medieval Georgian architect Arsukisdze, although the site itself dates back to the early fourth century.
Svetitskhoveli is considered an endangered cultural landmark; it has survived a variety of adversities, and many of its priceless frescoes have been lost due to being whitewashed by the Russian Imperial authorities.
According to Georgian hagiography, in the 1st century AD a Georgian Jew from Mtskheta named Elias was in Jerusalem when Jesus was crucified. Elias bought Jesus’ robe from a Roman soldier at Golgotha and brought it back to Georgia. Returning to his native city, he was met by his sister Sidonia who upon touching the robe immediately died from the emotions engendered by the sacred object. The robe could not be removed from her grasp, so she was buried with it.
The place where Sidonia is buried with Christ's robe is preserved in the Cathedral. Later, from her grave grew an enormous cedar tree. Ordering the cedar chopped down to build the church, St. Nino had seven columns made from it for the church’s foundation. The seventh column, however, had magical properties and rose by itself into the air. It returned to earth after St. Nino prayed the whole night. It was further said that from the magical seventh column a sacred liquid flowed that cured people of all diseases.
In Georgian sveti means "pillar" and tskhoveli means "life-giving" or "living", hence the name of the cathedral. An icon portraying this event can be seen on the second column on the right-hand from the entrance. Reproduced widely throughout Georgia, it shows Sidonia with an angel lifting the column in heaven. Saint Nino is in the foreground: King Mirian and his wife, Queen Nana, are to the right and left.
The architecture of the present Svetitskhoveli Cathedral, which dates from around 1020, is based on the cross-dome style of church architecture, which emerged in Georgia in the early Middle Ages and became the principle style after the political unification of Georgia by Bagrat III (978-1014). The characteristic of this style is that the dome is placed across all four sides of church. The structure of the church is intended to ensure good acoustics. The dome of Svetitskhoveli was reconstructed several times over the centuries to keep the church in good condition.
The basic stone used for the Cathedral is a sandy yellow with trimmings, while around the apse window a red stone is used. The green stone used in the drum of the cupola is from the 17th century.
A legend surrounds a relief sculpture on the external northern wall. This shows a right arm and hand holding a chisel - symbol of the stonemason – with an inscription reads: “The Hand of Arsukidze, slave of God, may forgiveness be his”.
A novel by famous Georgian writer Gamsakhurdia relates the legend, for which there is no documentary evidence, that a priest who had also been Arsukidze’s patron and teacher was so jealous of Arsukidze's success that he used his influence with the king to have the architect's right hand cut off to make sure that he would never be able to create a masterpiece like or better than Svetitskhoveli in his lifetime again.
The cathedral interior walls were once fully adorned with medieval frescoes, but many of them did not survive.The majority of the icons here date to the 20th century. Some are copies of older icons and frescoes from other churches throughout Georgia.